INDONESIAN FOOD SECURITY POLICY

Michelle Engel Limenta, Sianti Candra

Full Text: PDF



DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15742/ilrev.v7n2.198

Abstract


Food security has been an issue of endless discussions given its sensitive nature of being associated with the wellbeing of individuals. Pursuant to Article 33 of the Indonesian Constitution, the Indonesian Government, in principle, have the legal capacity to utilize to the greatest extent the nation’s natural resources for the sake of the welfare of Indonesian citizens through regulating and issuing relevant policies. As regards food security, Indonesian policies, in general, have been more focused on programs that aim to promote self-sufficiency in food production in order to achieve food security, as stated in Law No. 18 of 2012 regarding Food. The Law provides that importing food products can only be conducted if production by local producers is insufficient for the consumption needs of Indonesian citizens. Thus, this article will discuss further the national and international implications as a result of the government’s continuous perception that food security problems can be resolved with self-sufficiency in food production. The question is whether this policy has managed to reach its intended goal, namely ensuring Indonesian citizens the availability and access to nutritious food? Finally, this article will offer two solutions that are deemed to be more effective and efficient than the notion of food self-sufficiency in achieving the food security policy objective.

Keywords


ketahanan pangan; swasembada, perdagangan internasional; WTO

References


Legal Documents

Appellate Body Report, Chile - Price Band System and Safeguard Measures Relating to Certain Agricultural Products, WT/DS207/AB/R, 22 September 2002.

Indonesia. Peraturan Menteri Perdagangan tentang Impor dan Ekspor Hewan dan Produk Hewan (Regulation of Minister of Trade concerning Exportation and Importation of Animal and Animal Products). Permendag 46/M-DAG/PER/8/2013 (Regulation of Minister of Trade No. 26 Year 2013).

Indonesia. Peraturan Menteri Perdagangan tentang Peraturan Produk Hortikultura Impor. (Regulation of Minister of Trade concerning Provisions of Horticultural Product Import). Permendag No. 16/M-DAG/PER/4/2013 (Regulation of Minister of Trade No. 16 Year 2013).

Indonesia. Peraturan Menteri Pertanian tentang Pedoman Umum Swasembada Daging Sapi (Regulation of Minister of Agriculture concerning General Guidelines for Beef Self-Sufficiency). Permentan No. 19/Permentan/Ot.140/2/2010 (Regulation of Minister of Agriculture No. 19 Year 2010).

Indonesia. Peraturan Menteri Pertanian tentang Pemasukan Karkas, Daging, Jeroan, dan/atau Olahannya ke Dalam Wilayah Negara Republik Indonesia (Regulation of Minister of Agriculture concerning Importation of Carcass, Meat, Offal, and/or Its derivatives into the Territory of the Republic of Indonesia). Permentan No. 84/Permentan/PD.410/8/2013 (Regulation of Minister of Agriculture No. 84 Year 2013).

Indonesia. Peraturan Menteri Pertanian tentang Rekomendasi Impor Produk Hortikultura (Regulation of Minister of Agriculture concerning Horticultural Product Import Recommendation). Permentan No.86/OT.140/8/2013 (Regulation of Minister of Agriculture No. 86 Year 2013)

Indonesia. Undang-Undang tentang Pangan (Law Regarding Food). UU No. 18 Tahun 2012 (Law No. 18 Year 2012)

Panel Report, Chile - Price Band System and Safeguard Measures Relating to Certain Agricultural Products, WT/DS207/R, 3 May 2002.

World Trade Organization. Agreement on Import Licensing Procedures.

World Trade Organization. General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994.

World Trade Organization. Indonesia - Importation of Horticultural Products, Animals and Animal Products, WT/DS477. 8 October 2015

Books

Marwati Djoened Posesponegoro and Nugroho Notosusanto. Sejarah nasional Indonesia: Zaman Jepang dan zaman Republik Indonesia. PT Balai Pustaka. 2008.

Policy and Planning Division of Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. Food Security and Food Self-Sufficiency in Bhutan. Bhutan. August 2010.

United Nations. The Role of Policies in Agricultural Transformation: Lessons from Brazil, Indonesia, and the Republic of Korea. Working Paper 106. 2012.

Articles

_______.“Kebijakan Pangan”. Suara Merdeka (4 Februari 2008). http://www.suaramerdeka.com/harian/0802/04/nas04.htm. Accessed April 2015.

________. “Agricultural Sector of Indonesia”. 20 April 2015. http://www.indonesia-investments.com/culture/economy/general-economic-outline/agriculture/item378. Accessed 20 April 2015.

________. “Brazil files dispute against Indonesia over import restrictions on chicken” (16 October 2014). https://www.wto.org/english/news_e/news14_e/ds484rfc_16oct14_e.htm. 16 October 2014. Accessed April 2015.

________. “Impor Pilihan Terakhir Pemerintah” (6 Juni 2015). Kompas Print Edition. http://print.kompas.com/baca/2015/06/06/pilihanimpor. Accessed June 2015.

________. “Kenaikan Harga Daging Sapi tidak Wajar” (8 August 2015). Republika. http://www.republika.co.id/berita/koran/publik/15/08/08/nsrere1-kenaikan-harga-daging-sapi-tidak-wajar. Accessed August 2015.

________. “Produksi Tomat Jabar Alami Kelebihan 9000 Ton” (24 August 2015). http://ekonomi.inilah.com/read/detail/2231935/produksi-tomat-jabar-alami-kelebihan-9000-ton. Accessed August 2015.

________. “United States Challenges Indonesia’s Ongoing Import Restrictions on Horticultural Products, Animals, and Animal Products”. United States Trade Representative (May 2014). https://ustr.gov/about-us/policy-offices/press-office/press-releases/2014/May/US-Challenges-Indonesia-Ongoing-Import-Restrictions-Horticulture-Animal-Products. Accessed April 2015.

________.“Harga Kedelai Melonjak, Produsen Tempe Menjerit”. Suara Karya as cited by Ministry of Industry (22 July 2015). http://www.kemenperin.go.id/artikel/3857/Harga-Kedelai-Melonjak,-Produsen-Tempe-Menjerit. Accessed 22 July 2015.

_________. “Reducing Poverty And Hunger: The Critical Role Of Financing For Food, Agriculture And Rural Development” (March 2002). Paper Prepared for the International Conference on Financing for Development Monterrey. ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/003/Y6265E/Y6265E.pdf. Accessed April 2015.

Balai Embrio Ternak. “Kuota Import Daging Sapi Ditentukan Melalui Rapat Menko” (05 February 2013). http://betcipelang.info/home-1/138-kuota-impor-ditentukan-melalui-rapat-menko.html. Accessed April 2015.

Biro Humas dan Luar Negeri Badan Pemeriksa Keuangan. “Hasil Pemeriksaan BPK Semester II Tahun 2012 Atas Program Swasembada Daging Sapi Tahun 2010 s.d. 2012, BPK RI” (10 April 2013). http://www.bpk.go.id/news/hasil-pemeriksaan-bpk-semester-ii-tahun-2012-atas-program-swasembada-daging-sapi-tahun-2010-sd-2012. Accessed April 2015.

C., Chandra Alexander and Lucky A. Lontoh, “Regional Food Security and Trade Policy in Southeast Asia” (June 2010). Series on Trade and Food Security – Policy Report 3. International Institution for Sustainable Dvelopment. http://www.iisd.org/library/regional-food-security-and-trade-policy-southeast-asia-role-asean. Accessed April 2015.

Ho Dang Hoa, Le Thi Quynh Tram, Pham Duy Nghia and Malcolm F. McPherson. “Vietnam needs to change the approach to food security?” (23 October 2012). http://english.vietnamnet.vn/fms/special-reports/52232/vietnam-needs-to-change-the-approach-to-food-security-.html. Accessed May 2015.

International Institute for Sustainable Development. “Chapter 5: International disciplines on subsidies”. Global Subsidies Initiative. http://www.iisd.org/gsi/international-disciplines-subsidies. Accessed 30 April 2015.

Kementerian Perdagangan. “Kemendag Revisi Dua Ketentuan Terkait Impor: Stabilisasi Harga Bahan Pokok dan Kepastian Usaha kepada Petani dan Peternak” (25 April 2015). http://www.kemendag.go.id/files/pdf/2013/09/03/kemendag-revisi-dua-ketentuan-terkait-impor-stabilisasi-harga-bahan-pokok-dan-kepastian-usaha-kepada-petani-dan-peternak-id0-1378206207.pdf. Accessed 25 April 2015.

Kementerian Perdagangan. “Patokan Impor, Harga Referensi Daging Sapi & Hortikultura Digodok” (28 August 2013). http://www.kemendag.go.id/en/news/2013/08/28/-patokan-impor-harga-referensi-daging-sapi-hortikultura-digodok. Accessed April 2015.

Kurniawan, Widhie. “Fenomena Kenaikan Harga Bawang Radio Republick Indonesia” Radio Republik Indonesia ( 19 Maret 2013). http://www.rri.co.id/post/editorial/97/editorial/fenomena_kenaikan_harga_bawang.html. Accessed April 2015.

Lassa, Jonatan “Politik Ketahanan Pangan Indonesia 1950-2005”. http://www.zef.de/module/register/media/3ddf_Politik%20Ketahanan%20Pangan%20Indonesia%201950-2005.pdf. Centre for Development Research (2005). Accessed April 2015.

Nguyen Do Ahn Tua. “Dealing with Shocks in a Food Surplus Country: The Case of Vietnam” (May 2014). http://www.2020resilience.ifpri.info/files/2013/07/2014-05-17_2020_PRS_3D_Tuan.pdf. Accessed April 2015.

Taylor, Michael. “Indonesia self-sufficiency push will drive up beef prices” (4 March 2015). Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/indonesia-beef-idUSL4N0W533G20150304. Accessed 20 August 2015.

Tortajada, Cecilia and Thinesh Kumar S/O Paramasilvam. “Singapore’s Impressive Food Security” (6 September 2015). http://thediplomat.com/2015/09/singapores-impressive-food-security/. Accessed September 2015.

World Trade Organization. “Export competition/subsidies”. https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/agric_e/ag_intro04_export_e.htm. Accessed 30 April 2015.

Yulisman, Linda. “RI seeks amicable solution to chicken dispute with Brazil”. Jakarta Post (21 October 2014). http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2014/10/21/ri-seeks-amicable-solution-chicken-dispute-with-brazil.html#sthash.vhwX3GPC.dpuf. Accessed April 2015

Others

Asian Development Bank. “Agricultural Biotechnology, Poverty Reduction and Food Security” (May 2001). http://www.adb.org/publications/agricultural-biotechnology-poverty-reduction-and-food-security. Accessed April 2015.

Asian Development Bank. “Indonesia: Strategic Vision for Agriculture and Rural Development” (2006). Asian Development Bank Phillipines. Accessed April 2015.

Australia. “Indonesia: Facing the Challenges”. Australian Government Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. http://dfat.gov.au/about-us/publications/trade-investment/indonesia-facing-challenge/Pages/indonesia-facing-the-challenge.aspx. Accessed April 2015.

Food and Agriculture Organization. “Food Security”. Policy Brief Issue 2 (June 2006). http://www.fao.org/forestry/13128-0e6f36f27e0091055bec28ebe830f46b3.pdf. Accessed April 2015.

Food and Agriculture Organization. “Implications of Economic Policy for Food Security: A Training Manual”. Food and Agriculture Organization. http://www.fao.org/docrep/004/x3936e/x3936e03.htm. Accesed 20 April 2015.

Food and Agriculture Organization. “Livestock, Food Security and Poverty Reduction” (2009). http://www.fao.org/docrep/012/i0680e/i0680e03.pdf. Accessed June 2015.

Food and Agriculture Organization. “Trade Reforms and Food Security: Conceptualizing the linkages”. Food and Agriculture Organization (2003). ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/005/y4671e/y4671e00.pdf. Accessed April 2015.

Food and Agriculture Organization. “Why trade matters for improving food security”. Food and Agriculture Organization. https://www.wto.org/english/news_e/spsp_e/spsp37_e.htm. Accessed 13 April 2005.

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. “OECD Review of Agricultural Policies: Indonesia 2012”. OECD Publishing (2012). http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264179011-en. Accessed April 2015.

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. “Non-Tariff Measures to Trade: Economic and Policy Issues for Developing Countries”. UNCTAD/DITC/TAB/2012/1, ISSN 1817-1214. 2013 http://unctad.org/en/PublicationsLibrary/ditctab20121_en.pdf. Accessed April 2015.

Will Martin. “Food Security and Poverty – A Precarious Balance” (11 May 2010). http://blogs.worldbank.org/developmenttalk/food-security-and-poverty-a-precarious-balance. Accessed May 2015.

World Bank. “Reducing Inequality in Indonesia” (22 October 2014). http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/indonesia/brief/reducing-inequality-in-indonesia. Accessed May 2015.

World Trade Organization. “Domestic Support In Agriculture” (1 October 2002). https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/agric_e/agboxes_e.htm. Accessed 30 April 2015.

World Trade Organization. “New Zealand, US file disputes against Indonesia on imports of agricultural products” (8 May 2014). https://www.wto.org/english/news_e/news14_e/ds477rfc_09may14_e.htm. Accessed April 2015.

World Trade Organization. “Trade Policy Reviews: Indonesia 1998”. PRESS RELEASE

PRESS/TPRB/94. (1 December 1998). https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/tpr_e/tp94_e.htm. Accessed April 2015.


Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


ISSN: 2356-2129