LEGAL DUALISM AND INCONSISTENCY REGARDING INMATES’S RIGHTS: A REVIEW TOWARD IMPLEMENTATION OF GOVERNMENT REGULATION NUMBER 99 OF 2012

Febby Mutiara Nelson

Full Text: PDF



DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15742/ilrev.v7n2.204

Abstract


In 1999, the Government of Indonesia established Government Regulation (GR) 32/1999 on the Procedures for The Implementation of the Rights of Inmates and has been amended lastly by GR 99/2012. However, the establishment of GR 99/2012 creates complication and unfairly discriminates against inmates committing to an extraordinary crimes (terrorism, drug abuse, corruption, crimes against the security of the state, crimes against humanity and other transnational organized crimes) that impedes such inmates to submit remission and parole. This paper examines the consistency between the implementation of GR 99/2012 and the concept of criminal punishment in Indonesia. This paper is a summary of empirical juridical research that reports the influences of GR 99/2012 on inmates in correctional institutions. Data used for this research was obtained from interviews, observation, desk reviews and focus group discussion with government officials. Based on the findings, it could be inferred that GR 99/2012 has impeded the fulfillment of the inmate’s rights on parole and remission due to complication of procedures, additional fines, and multi interpretation of the regulation. Furthermore, it affects the aggravation of overcrowding, violations against inmate’s rights, and illegal practices within the process. Based on the analysis as discussed in this paper, GR 99/2012 is inconsistent with the concept of criminal punishment in Indonesia because it impedes inmates to return within society. This paper proposes that GR 99/2012 should be revoked and revised in accordance with the spirit of Corrections Act and to creat synergy among law enforcers in fulfilling the inmate’s rights.

Keywords


correctional institutions; extraordinary crime; inmate’s rights; GR 99/2012; Indonesia; parole; remission.

References


Asri, Benyamin, 1989, The Rights of Suspects and Defendants in Investigation,

Prosecution and Judiciary [Hak-Hak Tersangka dan Terdakwa Dalam Penyidikan, Penuntutan, dan Peradilan], Penerbit Tarsito, Bandung.

Black, Henry Campbell, 1979, Black’s Law Dictionary 5 Edition, St. Paul Minn: West Publishing Co.

BPHN, 2012, The Role of Regional Government in The Fulfillment of the Right to Justice (A Study on Access to Legal Assistance for the Poor) [Peran Pemerintah Daerah Dalam Pemenuhan Hak Atas Keadilan, (Studi Tentang Akses Bantuan Hukum Bagi Masyarakat Miskin)], Percetakan Pohon Cahaya, Jakarta.

Brotosusilo, Agus. et al, 1994, Legal Writing: A Reference Manual for Lecturers [Penulisan Hukum: Buku Pegangan Dosen], Jakarta: Konsorsium Ilmu Hukum Departemen PDK, Jakarta.

Bruggink, JJ.H, 1996, Recht Reflecties, Grondbegrippen Uit De Rechtstheire, PT. Citra Aditya Bakti, Bandung.

Gijssels, Jan Mark Van Hoekce, translated by B. Arief Sidharta, 2000, What is Legal Theory? [Apakah teori Hukum itu?], Non-Periodical Press N3, Laboratory, Faculty of Law Universitas Katolik Parahyangan, Bandung.

Hamzah, Andi., RM Surachman, 2015, Pre-Trial Justice Discretionary of Criminal Procedural Law in Several Countries [Pre-Trial Justice Discretionary Justice Dalam KUHAP Berbagai Negara], Sinar Grafika, Jakarta.

Harahap, M. Yahya, 2001, A Discussion of the Issues and Implementation of

Criminal Procedural Law: Investigation and Prosecution [Pembahasan Permasalahan dan Penerapan KUHAP Penyidikan dan Penuntutan], Sinar Grafika, Jakarta.

Kelsen, Hans, 1978, The Pure Theory of Law, University of California Press, Oakland

_____, 1957, What Is Justice? Justice, Law and Politics in The Mirror of Science, University of California Press, Oakland.

Koesnadi, Moh. dan Bintan Saragih, 1998, Theory of State [Ilmu Negara], ed.2, Jakarta Gaya Media Pratama.

Lloyd, Dennis and M.D.A. Freeman, 2004, Introduction to Jurisprudence, Sweer & Maxwell Limited, London.

Lubis, Todung Mulya, 1986, Legal Assistance and Structural Poverty [Bantuan Hukum dan Kemiskinan Struktural], ed.1, LP3ES, Jakarta.

Nasution, Adnan Buyung, 1988, Legal Assistance in Indonesia [Bantuan Hukum di Indonesia], LP3ES, Jakarta.

Pangaribuan, Luhut M. P., 2013, Criminal Procedural Law: Advocate’s Official Documents in a Court [Hukum Acara Pidana, Surat Resmi Advokat di Pengadilan], Papas Sinar Sinanti, Jakarta.

Prakoso, Djoko. Agus Ismunarso, 1987, The Rights of Suspects and The Role of Psychology in The Context of Criminal Procedural Law [Hak Asasi Tersangka dan Peranan Psikologi dalam Konteks KUHAP], Bina Aksara, Jakarta.

Prodjohamidjojo, Martiman, 1987, Indonesian Counsel and Legal Assistance [Penasehat dan Bantuan Hukum Indonesia], Ghalia Indonesia, Jakarta.

Rawls, John, 1973, A Theory of Justice, Harvard University Press, Cambridge.

Saleh, Abdul Rahman, The Prohibition for Dogs and Indonesian and The Emergence of Legal Aid Institution, 40 Years Note of Tidal Wave of Justice [Verboden Voor Honden En Inlanders dan Lahirlah LBH, Catatan 40 Tahun Pasang Surut Keadilan], Jakarta: YLBHI 2012.

Sitompul, DPM, 1985, Police and Arrest [Polisi dan Penangkapan], Perguruan Tinggi Ilmu Kepolisian, Bandung.

Soekanto, Soerjono, 1983, Legal Assistance: A Socio-Legal Review [Bantuan Hukum Suatu Tinjauan Sosio Yuridis], Ghalia Indonesia, Jakarta.

Winata, Frans Hendra, 2011, Legal Assistance in Indonesia: The Right to Assistance of Counsel for All Citizens [Bantuan Hukum di Indonesia Hak untuk Didampingi Penasihat Hukum Bagi Semua Warga Negara], PT. Elex media Komputindo, Jakarta.

C. Clear, T., Rose, D.R., & Ryder, J.A. (2001). Incarceration and the Community: The Problem of Removing and Returning Offenders. Crime & Delinquency, 47

Goodstein, L “Inmate adjustment to prison and the transition to community life.” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 16 (2) 1979

Harsono, Development in Law Enforcement and Justice Administration [Pembangunan di Bidang Penegakkan dan Penyelenggaraan Hukum].

Rafter, N.H. (1990) The Social Construction of Crime and Crime Control. Journal of Research in Crime adn Delinquency, 27 (4).

Wahyono, Padmo, 1976, Providing Legal Assistance by Faculty of Law in

Public Universities [Pemberian Bantuan Hukum Oleh Fakultas Hukum Negeri], Fakultas Hukum Negeri, Jakarta.

Zamble, E. “Behavior and Adaptation in long term Prison Inmates: Descriptive Longitudinal Result.” Criminal Justice and Behavior 19 (4) 1992.

The Indonesian Constitution of 1945.

Law Number 16 of 2011 on Legal Assistance (State Gazette of the Republic of Indonesia of 2007 Number 104, ABCDESupplement of the State Gazette of the Republic of Indonesia Number 5248).


Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


ISSN: 2356-2129