Urgency for Legal Framework on Drones: Lessons for Indonesia, India, and Thailand

Ridha Aditya Nugraha, Deepika Jeyakodi, Thitipon Mahem

Full Text: PDF



DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15742/ilrev.v6n2.229

Abstract


Civilian drones are revolutionizing the skies, ushering in several beneficial possibilities and along with it several questions. From checking damage to a roof and aerial photography to border patrolling and emergency response, drones are increasingly put to civil and commercial use. Such a common use requires regulation. Technology has always grown exponentially, whereas the law governing such technology has to contend with such growth. Developed western countries are not the only ones grappling with reigning in these drones. The unique geographic conditions and national interests of Indonesia, India, and Thailand, find more utility for civilian drones, welcoming in the technology and the disruption it brings along. Each of these nations has adopted a measure of regulation for civilian usage of drones, which is the subject of this paper; An overview of its impact on this burgeoning phenomenon is provided, by comparing the existing legal framework in these three countries. Further, an attempt has been made to draw out suggestions for the Governments by highlighting factors that will require more deliberation in the process of establishing a sound legal and regulatory environment for civilian drones. Finally, the possibility of regional co-operation in establishing uniform standards, practices, and legal framework is explored.

Keywords


drones; legal framework; regulation; regional co-operation; UAV

References


India, Constitution of India (1949).

India. Directorate General of Civil Aviation Public Notice. No. 05-13/2014-AED (2014).

India. Penal Code. Act No. 45 (1860).

Indonesia. Peraturan Menteri Perhubungan tentang Pengendalian Pengoperasian Pesawat Udara Tanpa Awak di Ruang Udara yang Dilayani Indonesia (Minister of Transportation Regulation regarding Unmanned Aerial Vehicle within the Indonesian Air Space). Permenhub No. 90 Tahun 2015, BNRI No. 723 ofYear 2015 (Minister Regulation No. 90 ofYear 2015, SG No. 723 ofYear 2015).

Indonesia. Undang-Undang tentang Penerbangan (Law regarding Aviation). UU No. 1 Tahun 2009, LN No. 1 ofYear 2009 (Law No. 1, SG. No. 1 ofYear 2009).

South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation Charter. Dhaka, 8 December 1985.

Thailand. Air Navigation Act. B.E. 2497 (1954).

Thailand. Announcement of Department of Transportation of Thailand on the Provisions and Conditions on Commanding and Releasing Pilotless Aircraft. B.E. 2558 (2015).

Thailand. Department of Transportation Regulation on non-Aircraft Object. B.E. 2548 (2005).

United Nations. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966).

United Nations. Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948).

Books

de Beer, Lydia. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (Drones) and Law. Nijmegen: Wolf Legal Publishers, 2011.

Herrero, Álvaro et al. International Joint Conference SOCO’13-CISIS’13-ICEUTE’13, Salamanca, Spain, September 11th-13th, 2013 Proceedings. Basel, Springer International Publishing, 2014.

Lessig, Lawrence. Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace. New York: Basic Books, 1999.

Mueller, John and Mark G. Stewart. Terror, Security, and Money: Balancing the Risks, Benefits, and Costs of Homeland Security. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

Articles

Clarke, Roger. “Understanding the Drone Epidemic.” Computer Law & Security Review 30 (2014): 231-246. Accessed on 20 February 2016. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clsr.2014.03.002.

Gogarty, Brendan and Meredith Hagger. “The Laws of Man Over Vehicles Unmanned: The Legal Response to Robotic Revolution on Sea, Land and Air.” Journal of Law, Information and Science Vol. 19 (2008): 73-145. Accessed on 20 February 2016. http://www.jlisjournal.org/content/Gogarty%20and%20Hagger%20JLIS%2019.pdf.

ICAO. “Integrating RPAS into Airspace.” The ICAO Journal 70 No. 2 (2015): 4. Accessed on 13 February 2016. http://www.icao.int/publications/journalsreports/2015/7002_en.pdf.

Kaiser, Stefan A. “UAVs and Their Integration into non-Segregated Airspace.” Air and Space Law Vol. 36 Issue 2 (2011): 161–172.

Katyal, Neal. “Disruptive Technologies and the Law.” Thee Georgetown Law Journal Vol. 102 Issue 6 (2014): 1685-1689. Accessed on 20 February 2016. http://georgetownlawjournal.org/files/2014/08/Katyal-Disruptive.pdf.

Websites

“ASEAN Open Skies Policy to be Implemented in 2015.” http://www.aseanbriefing.com/news/2015/01/02/asean-open-skies-policy-implemented-2015.html. Accessed on 12 February 2016.

“Commercial Drones: Highways in the Sky, Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS), Market Shares, Strategies, and Forecasts, Worldwide, 2015 to 2021.” http://www.rnrmarketresearch.com/commercial-drones-highways-in-the-sky-unmanned-aerial-systems-uas-market-shares-strategies-and-forecasts-worldwide-2015-to-2021-market-report.html. Accessed on 21 February 2016.

“Delhi Police to Use Drones for Street Surveillance.” http://www.livemint.com/Politics/judPhYHQsNw3T5p6iQgllN/Delhi-Police-to-use-drones-for-street-surveillance.html. Accessed on 8 February 2016.

“Drohne “Luna”: Bundeswehr verheimlichte Beinahe-Crash mit Airbus.” http:// www.spiegel.de/politik/deutschland/drohne-luna-bundeswehr-verheimlicht-beinahe-crash-mit-airbus-a-903337.html. Accessed on 20 February 2016.

“Explore Terms: A Glossary of Common Cybersecurity Terminology.” https://niccs.us-cert.gov/glossary#Spoofing. Accessed on 20 February 2016.

“List of Defence Items Requiring Industrial Licenses.” http://dipp.nic.in/English/acts_rules/Press_Notes/pn3_2014.pdf. Accessed on 22 February 2016.

“Permission Needed to Fly Drone in Public.” http://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/chennai/permission-needed-to-fly-drone-in-public/article6764693.ece. Accessed on 8 February 2016.

“SAARC Charter.” http://www.saarc-sec.org/SAARC-Charter/5/. Accessed on 11 February 2016.

“UAV Regulations in India - A Pre – Requsite.” http://www.usai.in/regulations.html. Accessed on 8 February 2016.

“Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Humanitarian Response.” http://www.elrha.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/Unmanned-Aerial-Vehicles-in-Humanitarian-Response-OCHA-July-2014.pdf. Accessed on 11 February 2016.

“Unmanned Aerial Vehicle in Kedarnath to Help Rescue, Relief Operation: NDMA.” http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2013-07-08/news/40443533_1_uav-unmanned-aerial-vehicle-kedarnath. Accessed on 8 February 2016.

Amelia R, Mei. “Kembalikan Drone yang Jatuh di Menara BCA, Polisi: Sementara Rekaman Disita.” http://news.detik.com/berita/2985250/kembalikan-drone-yang-jatuh-di-menara-bca-polisi-sementara-rekaman-disita. Accessed on 19 February 2016.

Angad, Abhishek and Sarah Hafeez. “Police Use Drones to Find Bricks, Bottles.” http://indianexpress.com/article/cities/delhi/police-use-drones-to-find-bricks-bottles/. Accessed on 8 February 2016.

Brummitt, Chris and Hendaru Purnomo. “Indonesia is Using Drones to Catch Tax Cheats.” https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2015-06-03/drones-seek-out-tax-cheats-in-indonesia-s-palm-oil-plantations. Accessed on 3 February 2016.

Center for the Study of the Drone. “Drones in Southeast Asia.” http://dronecenter.bard.edu/drones-in-southeast-asia/. Accessed on 1 February 2016.

Clarke, Roger. “Understanding the Drone Epidemic.” https://www.parliament.nsw.gov.au/prod/parlment/committee.nsf/0/f618f4da91a21907ca257c86001a331b/$FILE/Article%20-%20Understanding%20the%20Drone%20Epidemic.pdf. Accessed 23 January 2016.

Daly, Angela and Steve Collins. “Disruption and the Law.” http://peerproduction.net/issues/issue-6-disruption-and-the-law/. Accessed on 20 February 2016.

Dixit, Pranav. “Something in the Air: Drones Finally Making a Comeback to Indian Skies.” http://www.hindustantimes.com/tech/something-in-the-air-drones-finally-making-a-comeback-to-indian-skies/story-Ka0UCL1nwB9ONoRU4Nuw4M.html. Accessed on 8 February 2016.

Hall, Joseph Lorenzo. “’License Plates’ for Drones.” https://cdt.org/blog/license-plates-for-drones/. Accessed on 20 February 2016.

Harriman, Lindsey and Joseph Muhlhausen. “A New Eye in the Sky: Eco-drones.” http://www.unep.org/pdf/UNEP-GEAS_MAY_2013.pdf. Accessed on 11 February 2016.

Krishnamurthy, Krithika. “India to be Launch Pad for Amazon's Plan to Deliver Packages Using Drones; Deliveries May Start by Diwali.” http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2014-08-20/news/53028827_1_prime-air-drones-outdoors-amazon. Accessed on 8 February 2016.

Lamb, Kate. “Indonesia Readies Mass Production of Drones, Voice of America.” http://www.voanews.com/content/indonesia-readies-mass-production-of-drones/1651633.html. Accessed on 20 February 2016.

Ledysia, Septiana. “Polisi: Jika Ada Pelanggaran, OX Pemilik Drone Bisa Dipidana.” http://news.detik.com/berita/2983492/polisi-jika-ada-pelanggaran-ox-pemilik-drone-bisa-dipidana. Accessed on 19 February 2016.

Lee Pei Qi, Paige and Rosa Ocampo. “ASEAN Open Skies Impeded by Limited Landing Slots.” http://www.ttgasia.com/article.php?article_id=26522. Accessed on 10 February 2016.

Nugraha, Ridha Aditya. “Fenomena Drone: Tantangan Baru bagi Hukum Udara Indonesia.” http://www.hukumonline.com/berita/baca/lt569601b5795dc/fenomena-drone--tantangan-baru-bagi-hukum-udara-indonesia-broleh--ridha-aditya-nugraha-. Accessed on 26 January 2016.

Office of the Director-General of Civil Aviation, India. http://dgca.nic.in/misc/draft%20circular/AT_Circular%20-%20Civil_UAS(Draft%20April%202016).pdf. Accessed on 6 June 2016.

Rajput, Rashmi. “Mumbai Police Seeks Explanation on Drone Pizza Delivery.” http://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/mumbai/mumbai-police-seeks-explanation-on-drone-pizza-delivery/article6043644.ece. Accessed on 8 February 2016.

Sharma, Vishal. “Jharkhand’s Tiger Reserve to Use Drones for Surveillance.” http://www.hindustantimes.com/india/jharkhand-s-tiger-reserve-to-use-drones-for-surveillance/story-TfxduW3x546TzuUkr8dezJ.html. Accessed on 8 February 2016.

Singh, Alok. “Delhi Police Work on SOP for Use of Drones.” http://indianexpress.com/article/cities/delhi/delhi-police-work-on-sop-for-use-of-drones/. Accessed 8 February 2016.

Sterling, Toby. “Dutch Police Train Eagles to Snatch Enemy Drones.” http://www.reuters.com/article/us-dutch-police-drones-idUSKCN0VB136. Accessed on 11 February 2016.

Wapner, Jessica. “Medical Transport Drones Could Transform Healthcare in Overcrowded Cities.” http://europe.newsweek.com/india-organ-transplant-drones-419013?rm=eu. Accessed on 8 February 2016.




ISSN: 2356-2129