Bilal Dewansyah, Wicaksana Dramanda, Imam Mulyana

Full Text: PDF



The problem of asylum seekers has become a global humanitarian issues. Demands regarding the handling mechanisms based on the values of human rights is getting stronger voiced by the international community. In the Southeast Asian region, the number of ethnic Rohingya asylum seekers has increased and has started to demand settlement in non-immigrant countries like Indonesia. Although Indonesia does not have international legal obligations to receive asylum seekers, constitutionally, Indonesia has an obligation to guarantee the right of everyone to obtain asylum which has been included in the constitution. In a global perspective, humanitarian issues on the handling of asylum seekers started to be driven into the handling model based on regionalism. Therefore, ASEAN's response to the issue of asylum seekers should start a discourse given the number of asylum seekers in Southeast Asia began to rise. This paper deals with the immigration policy on asylum seekers of Rohingya people in Aceh province of Indonesia who plight in 2015 “boat people crisis” with regionalism approach.


asylum seekers; regional; ASEAN; legal framework; rohingya


ASEAN Human Rights Declaration (2012).

Convention relating to the status of refugees, Geneva, 28 July 1951, United Nation Treaties Series, Vol 189, No. 2545, Art. IA (2), as amended by Protocol relating to the status of refugees of the 1967.

Indonesia. Undang-Undang Dasar 1945 Perubahan (Amended 1945 Constitution). 1999 – 2002.

________. Undang-Undang tentang Hubungan Luar Negeri (Law on Foreign Relations), UU No. 37 Tahun 1999, LN No. 156 Tahun 1999 (Law Number 37 Year 1999, SG No. 156 Year 1999).

________. Undang-Undang tentang Hak Asasi Manusia (Law on Human Rights). Undang-undang Nomor 39 Tahun 1999, LN No. 165 Tahun 1999 (Law Number 39 Year 1999, SG No. 156 Year 1999).

________. Undang-Undang tentang Kewarganegaraan (Law on Citizenship), UU No. 12 Tahun 2006, LN No. 63 Tahun 2006 (Law Number 12 year 2006, SG No. 63 Year 2006).

________. Undang-Undang tentang Keimigrasian (Law on Immigration), UU No.6 Tahun 2011, LN No. 52 Tahun 2011 (Law Number 6 Year 2011, SG No. 52 Year 2011).

________. Peraturan Pemerintah tentang Peraturan Pelaksanaan Undang-Undang Nomor 6 Tahun 2011 tentang Keimigrasian (Governement Regulation on Implementation of Law Number 6 year 2011 regarding Immigration), PP No. 31Tahun 2013, LN No. 68 Tahun 2013 (Government Regulation Number 31year 2013, SG No. 68 Year 2013).

________. Peraturan Pemerintah tentang Visa, Izin Masuk, dan Izin Keimigrasian (Government Regulation on Visa, Entry Permit and Immigration Permit), PP No. 32 Tahun 1994, LN No.55 Tahun 1994 (Government Regulation Number 32 year 1994, SG No. 55 Year 1994).

________. Peraturan Presiden tentang Penanganan Pengungsi dari Luar Negeri (Presidential Regulation on The Handling of Refugee from Overseas). Peraturan Presiden Nomor 125 Tahun 2016, LN No. 368 Tahun 2016 (Presidential Regulation Number 125 Year 2016, SG No. 368 Year 2016).

________. Peraturan Direktur Jenderal Imigrasi, Kementerian Hukum dan HAM tentang Penanganan Imigran Ilegal (Regulation of Directorate General of Immigration, Ministry of Law and Human Rights on Handling of Illegal Immigrant). No. IMI-1949.UM.08.05 Year 2010. Accessed 22 August 2015.

________. Surat Edaran Direktur Jenderal Imigrasi, Departemen Kehakiman tentang Penanganan terhadap Orang Asing menyatakan diri sebagai pencari suaka atau pengungsi (Cicular of Directorate General of Immigration, Departement of Justice regarding Handling Procedure of Aliens who claim as asylum seeker or refugee). No: F-IL.01.10-1297, 30 September 2002. Accessed 22 August 2015.

United Nations. General Assembly. Universal Declaration of Human Rights. A/III/217 (10 Desember 1948).

____________, General Assembly. Note in International Protection. A/AC.96/930 (7 July 2000). Accessed 5 November 2015.


Allport, Alan, and John E Ferguson JR. Immigration Policy, 2nd Edition. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 2009.

Arputhasamy, Bernard Hyacinth. The Search : Protection Space in Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, Cambodia, the Phillipines. Bangkok : JRS Asia Pacific, 2012.

Bodvarsson, Orn B. and Hendrik Van Den Berg. The Economics of Immigration Theory and Policy The Economic Migration and Policy. Heidelberg: Springer, 2009.

Christie, Kenneth and Denny Roy. The Politics of Human Rights in East Asia. London: Pluto Press, 2001.

Dauvergne, Catherine. Making People Illegal What Globalization Means for Migration and Law. Cambridge – New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

Goodwin-Gill, Guy S. International Law and Movement of Persons Between States. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1978.

Krasner, Stephen D. Sovereignty: Organized Hypocrisy. Pricenton: Pricenton University Press, 1999.

Legomsky, Stephen. “The Last Bastions of State sovereignty Immigration and Nationality Go Global” in Challenges of Globalization: Immigration, Social Welfare, Global Governance. Edited by Andrew C. Sobel. London–New York: Routledge, 2009. Pp. 43 - 57.

Lynch, James P. and Rita J. Simon. Immigration The World Over Statutes, Policies, And Practices. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.Inc., 2003.

Nowak, Manfred. “Civil and Political Rights”. In Human Rights: Concepts and Standard. Edited by Janusz Symonides. England: UNESCO Publishing, 2000. Pp. 69 – 107.

O’Neill, Maggie. Asylum, Migration and Community. Bristol: The Policy Press, 2010.

Singh Juss, Satvinder. International Migration and Social Justice. Hampshire – Burlington: Ashgate, 2006.

Telò, Mario. “Introduction: Globalization, New Regionalism and the Role of the European Union” in European Union and New Regionalism Regional Actors and Global Governance in a Post-Hegemonic Era, Second Edition. Edited by Mario Telo. Hampshire–Burlington Ashgate, 2007. Pp. 1 – 18.

Kneebone, Susan and Felicity Rawlings-Sanaei. “Introduction: Regionalism as A Response of Global Challenge” in New Regionalism and Asylum Seekers. Edited by Susan Kneebone and Felicity Rawlings-Sanaei. New York–Oxford: Berghahn Book, 2007. Pp.1 – 24.

_____________. “Introduction: Refugees and Asylum Seekers in the International Context – Rights and Realities”, in Refugees, Asylum Seekers and The Rule of Law Comparative Perspectives, edited by Susan Kneebone, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009), pp. 18–19.

Yamanaka, Keiko “Japan as a Country of Immigration: Two Decades after an Influx of Immigrant Workers”. In Transnational Migration in East Asia: Japan in Comparative Focus. Edited by Shinji Yamashita et al. Osaka: Japan National Museum of Ethnology, 2008. Pp.187 – 196.


Afriansyah, Arie. “ASEAN’s Human Rights Body: New Breakthrough for Human Rights Protection in South East Asian Region Some Preliminary Notes from Indonesia’s Perspective.” Indonesia Law Review,Year 1 Vol. 2, (May - August, 2011) : 19 - 32. Accesed 18 October 2016. doi :

Manan, Bagir. ”Mamantapkan Peranan Imigrasi Dalam Pelayanan, Penerapan dan Penegakkan Hukum Keimigrasian Pada Era Globalisasi” [Ensuring The Role of Immigration in Services, Application and Enforcement Immigration Law in Globalization Era]. Paper presented in Working Meeting of Directorate General of Immigration, Department of Justice- Republic of Indonesia, Jakarta, 21 August 1996.

Dewansyah, Bilal. “Perkembangan Politik Hukum dan Kebutuhan Hukum Keimigrasian Indonesia: Menjawab Sebagian, Melupakan Selebihnya” [The Development of Legal Policy and Legal Needs of Indonesian Immigration Law : Answered Partially, Forget the Rest]. Hassanuddin Law Review Year 1, Issue 2 (May – August, 2015) : 140 – 162. Accessed 16 September 2015. doi :

Fitria. “Perlindungan Hukum Bagi Pengungsi di Negara Ketiga: Praktik Indonesia” [Refugee Protection in Third Countries : Indonesian Practices]. Padjadjaran Ilmu Hukum (Journal of Law) Year 1 Vol. 2 (May - August 2015): 105 – 125. Accessed 30 September 2015. doi :

Gil-Bazo, María-Teresa. “Asylum as a General Principle of International Law.” International Journal of Refugee Law Year 27, No. 1, (2015): 3 – 28. Accesed 20 October 2016. doi:

Hongwei, Fan. “ASEAN’s “Constructive Engagement” Policy toward Myanmar.” China International Studies, (March - April 2012) : 54-70. Accessed 1 July 2015.

Kolb, Holger. “Immigration into a Non-immigration Country: The German Experience”, FES-Information Year 2008 Series 04: 1- 10. Accessed 9 September 2015.

Lambert, Helene, Francesco Messineo, and Paul Tiedmann, “Comparative Perspectives of Constitutional Asylum in France, Italy, And Germany: Requiescat In Pace?” Refugee Survey Quarterly Year 27 Vol. 3 (2008) : 16 - 32.

Parnini, Syeda Naushin. “The Rohingya Issue In Bangladesh-Myanmar Relations” International Journal of Arts & Sciences No. 4 Vol. 23 (2011) : 65 – 80.

Taylor, Savitri and Brynna Rafferty-Brown, “Difficult Journeys: Accessing Refugee Protection In Indonesia”. Monash University Law Review Year 36 Vol.3 (2010): 138 – 161. Accessed 23 September 2015.


ASEAN, “Chairman Statement Emergency ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Transnational Crime Concerning Irregular Movement of Persons on Southeast Asia in Kuala Lumpur Malaysia.” 2 July 2015. Accessed 15 September 2015. “Ratusan orang Rohingya terdampar di Aceh” [Hundreds Rohingya people stranded in Aceh]. Accessed 15 June 2015.

_______. “Fasilitas pengungsi Rohingya di Aceh Utara 'mubazir'” [The Facility of Rohingya Refugees in North Aceh ‘useless’]. Accessed 14 October 2016.

Channel News Asia. ”Full concluding statement at migrant crisis talks”, , Accessed 30 June 2015.

Karunaharamoorthy, Garunya. “Update 2.0: Common European Asylum System plus Dublin III.” Accessed 15 September 2015. “Desember 2016, Seluruh Warga Rohingya Selesai Dipindah ke Medan” [December 2016, All Rohingya People Completed Moved to Medan]. Accessed 20 January 2017.

Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand. “Joint statement: Ministerial meeting on irregular movement of people in Southeast Asia.” . Accessed 30 June 2015.

Noorastuti, Pipiet Tri and Riza Nasser. “Manusia Perahu Myanmar Terdampar di Aceh” [Boat People from Myanmar Stranded in Aceh]. Viva News. Accessed 30 June 2015.

Purnamawati, Desi. “Mensos tinjau pengungsi Rohingya di Aceh Timur” [Minister of Social Affairs visit Rohingya Refugee in Aceh Timur]. Antara News.`/mensos-tinjau-pengungsi-rohingya-di-aceh-timur. Accessed 15 June 2015.

Radio Australia. “Turunnya Jumlah Pencari Suaka di Jakarta Berdampak ke Australia” [The Decreased Number of Asylum Seekers at Jakarta Impact to Australia]. Accessed 5 October 2015.

Salima, Mitra. “UNHCR di Indonesia” [UNHCR in Indonesia]. Accessed 5 October 2015.

Umar, Ahmad Rizky Mardhatillah. “Making ASEAN Works in Rohingya: A Southeast Asian Perpective.” Accessed 14 Juli 2015.

UNHCR, OHCHR, IOM, SRSG, UNODC. “Joint Statement : A comprehensive people-oriented approach to the irregular movement of migrants and refugees in South East Asia.” UNHCR, 2015. Accessed 1 July 2015.

Weng, Lawi. “Burma May Boycott Trafficking Summit over Use of Name ‘Rohingya.” The Irrawaddy. . Accessed 30 June 2015.

__________.“Stop Blaming Burma: Anti-Rohingya Rally Held in Rangoon.” The Irrawaddy. Accessed 30 June 2015.


Dewansyah, Bilal.“Pencegahan dan Penangkalan dalam Perspektif Hak Atas Kebebasan Bergerak Setelah Perubahan UUD 1945” [Prohibition to Leave and to Entry in Freedom of Movement Perspective after The Amendment of 1945 Constitution]. Unpublished master’s thesis, Universitas Padjadjaran, 2013.

Mathew, Penelope and Tristan Harley. Refugee Protection and Regional Cooperation in Southeast Asia A Fieldwork Report. Canberra: The Australian National University, 2014.

ISSN: 2356-2129