THE RIGHT OF EARLY ACCESS TO CRIMINAL LEGAL AID IN INDONESIA: CLEAR RULE, CLEARER VIOLATIONS

Maxwell Abbott

Full Text: PDF



DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15742/ilrev.v8n1.380

Abstract


This article will examine the right of early access to criminal legal aid in Indonesia, both in theory and in practice. In theory, the right of early access to criminal legal aid (the Right) is clear and firmly established in Indonesian law and international law which applies to Indonesia: individuals under arrest or in detention are entitled to receive legal aid at all stages of the criminal justice process. Therefore, law enforcement may not deny or delay a suspect’s access to a lawyer during the initial procedural stages of arrest, investigation and detention. This article will argue that the Right meets certain criteria of a clear legal rule, as distinguished from a vaguer legal standard, and we would therefore expect a high degree of compliance with the Right. However, in practice, we find frequent violations of the Right in Indonesia. After reviewing evidence of the violations, the article will conclude by briefly addressing several explanations while maintaining that the Right is a clear legal rule.

Keywords


legal aid; human rights; criminal procedure; rules; standards

References


Bibliography

Legal Documents

Indonesia, Kitab Undang-Undang Hukum Acara Pidana (Indonesian Criminal Code). UU. No. 8 Tahun 1981 (Law Number 8 Year 1981).

Indonesia, Undang-Undang Negara Republik Indonesia Tentang Pengadilan Anak (Indonesian National Juvenile Courts Act). UU. No. 3 Tahun 1997 (Law Number 3 Year 1997).

Indonesia, Undang-Undang Negara Republik Indonesia Tentang Perlingdungan Anak (Indonesian National Law on Child Protection). UU. No. 23 Tahun 2002 (Law Number 23 Year 2002).

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. New York, 16 December 1966. United Nations Treaty Series. Vol. 999. No. 14668.

United Nations, Committee Against Torture. Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 19 of the Convention, Concluding Observations of the Committee Against Torture, Indonesia. CAT/C/IDN/CO/2 (2 July 2008).

United Nations, Human Rights Committee, Mr. Conroy Levy v. Jamaica, Communication No. 719/1996, U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/64/D/719/1996 (3 November 1998).

United Nations, Human Rights Committee. Mrs. Tamara Chikunova v. Uzbekistan. Communication No. 1043/2002. U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/89/D/1043/2002 (3 April 2007).

United Nations, Human Rights Council. Promotion and Protection of All Human Rights, Civil Political, Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Including the Right to Development, Report of the Special Rapporteur on Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, Manfred Nowak Addendum, Mission to Indonesia, A/HRC/7/3/Add.7 (10 March 2008).

United Nations, Office on Drugs and Crime. Eighth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders. United Nations Publication. Sales No. E.91.IV.2, chap. 1, sect. B.3, annex (27 August-7 September 1990).

United Nations, Office on Drugs and Crime, United Nations Principles and Guidelines on Access to Legal Aid in Criminal Justice Systems. New York: United Nations, 2013. https://www.unodc.org/documents/justice-and-prison-reform/UN_principles_and_guidlines_on_access_to_legal_aid.pdf. Accessed 29 August 2016.

Books

Amnesty International. Flawed Justice: Unfair Trials and the Death Penalty in Indonesia. (London: Amnesty International, 2015).

Cape, Ed. Improving Pretrial Justice: The Roles of Lawyers and Paralegals. New York: Open Society Foundations, 2012. https://www.opensocietyfoundations.org/reports/improving-pretrial-justice-roles-lawyers-and-paralegals. Accessed 25 August 2016.

The Hague Institute for the Internationalisation of Law. Justice Needs in Indonesia 2014: Problems, Processes and Fairness. The Hague: The Hague Institute for the Internationalisation of Law, 2014. http://www.hiil.org/data/sitemanagement/media/JNST%20Indonesia%20Final.pdf. Accessed 30 August 2016.

Institute for Criminal Justice Reform. Judicial Killing: Dibunuh demi Keadilan, Fair Trial dan Hukuman Mati di Indonesia. Jakarta: Institute for Criminal Justice Reform, 2015.

Irwan, Ancilla and Simon Hearn. Formalising Legal Aid in Indonesia: A Case Study as Part of an Evaluation of the Australia Indonesia Partnership for Justice. London: Overseas Development Institute, 2016.

Open Society Foundations and United Nations Development Programme. The Socioeconomic Impact of Pretrial Detention. New York: Open Society Foundations, 2011. https://www.opensocietyfoundations.org/reports/socioeconomic-impact-pretrial-detention. Accessed 29 August 2016.

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Early Access to Legal Aid in Criminal Justice Processes: a Handbook for Policymakers and Practitioners. Vienna: United Nations, 2014. http://www.unodc.org/documents/justice-and-prison-reform/eBook-early_access_to_legal_aid.pdf. Accessed 25 August 2016.

World Justice Project, Rule of Law Index 2015. Washington: World Justice Project, 2015. http://worldjusticeproject.org/sites/default/files/roli_2015_0.pdf. Accessed 30 August 2016.

Articles

Budiawan, Evitarossi S. “After Idul Fitri, Executions to Go Ahead as Usual.” Jakarta Post. (21 July 2016).. http://cbe.thejakartapost.com/news/2016/07/21/after-idul-fitri-executions-go-ahead-usual.html. Accessed 30 August 2016.

Budidjaja, Tony. “The Future of Indonesia’s Legal Profession: A Lawyer’s Perspective.” Jakarta Post. (11 Apirl 2013). http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2013/04/11/the-future-indonesia-s-legal-profession-a-lawyer-s-perspective.html. Accessed 29 August 2016.

Dodson, Scott. “The Complexity of Jurisdictional Clarity." Virginia Law Review Vol. 97 No.1 (March 2011): 1-241.

Guzman, Andrew T. “A Compliance-Based Theory of International Law.” California Law Review Vol. 90 Issue 6 (December 2002): 1826-1886.

Raban, Ofer. “The Fallacy of Legal Certainty: Why Vague Legal Standards May Be Better for Capitalism and Liberalism.” Boston University Public Interest Law Journal Vol. 19 No. 2 (Spring 2010): 175-285.

Raz, Joseph. “Legal Principles and the Limits of Law.” Yale Law Journal Vol. 81 No. 5 (April 1972): 823-854.

Schlag, Pierre J. “Rules and Standards.” UCLA Law Review, Vol. 33 (December 1985): 379-407..

United States Agency for International Development. Notice of Funding Opportunity: USAID-INDONESIA Request for Application (RFA)-497-16-000001 (9 October 2015).

Websites

Australia Indonesia Partnership for Justice. “Legal Aid Delivers Justice in Indonesia.” http://www.aipj.or.id/en/civil_society_strengthening/detail/legal-aid-delivers-justice-in-indonesia Accessed 30 August 2016.

Australia Indonesia Partnership for Justice. “Indonesia’s First Nationally Funded Legal Aid System.” http://www.aipj.or.id/en/legal_aid. Accessed 30 August 2016.

Badan Pembinaan Hukum Nasional. “Akses Penyuluhan dan Bantuan Hukum.” http://adil.bphn.go.id/. Accessed 29 August 2016.

Cornell University Law School, Legal Information Institute. “Vagueness Doctrine.” https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/vagueness_doctrine. Accessed 29 August 2016.

Human Rights Watch. “US: Misuse of the Material Witness Statute.” (28 January 2011). https://www.hrw.org/news/2011/01/28/us-misuse-material-witness-statute. Accessed 13 November 2016.

Miriam Webster. “Simple Definition of All.” http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/all. Accessed 29 August 2016.

Miriam Webster. “Legal Definition of Entitle.” http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/entitle#legalDictionary. Accessed 29 August 2016.

Transparency International. “Global Corruption Barometer 2013: Indonesia.” http://www.transparency.org/gcb2013/country/?country=indonesia. Accessed 30 August 2016.

United Nations Development Programme. “The Legal Empowerment and Assistance for the Disadvantaged (LEAD): What We Do.” http://www.id.undp.org/content/indonesia/en/home/operations/projects/democratic_governance/the-legal-empowerment-and-assistance-for-the-disadvantaged.html. Accessed 30 August 2016.

United Nations, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. “Ratification Status for Indonesia.” http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/TreatyBodyExternal/Treaty.aspx?CountryID=80&Lang=EN. Accessed 29 August 2016.

United Nations Development Programme. “UNDP Results: Strengthening Access to Justice in Indonesia Project.” http://www.undp.org/content/dam/indonesia/docs/gover/2013%2008%2013%20SAJI%20Result%20Sheet.pdf. Accessed 30 August 2016.




ISSN: 2356-2129