A NEW ROLE OF CAUSATION THEORY TOWARDS ACHIEVING ECONOMIC CONTRACTUAL EQUILIBRIUM: MONITORING THE ECONOMIC EQUILIBRIUM OF THE CONTRACT

Osama Ismail Amayreh, Izura Masdina Mohamed Zakri, Pardis Moslemzadeh Tehrani, Yousef Mohammad Shandi

Full Text: PDF



DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15742/ilrev.v9n2.543

Abstract


The phrase “who says contractual, says justice” “qui dit contractuel dit juste” does not fully express the truth of our present reality, where the phrase itself falls into doubt, since the contract does not always result in fair obligations, as the contract is an expression of often unequal wills. In this regard, the French judiciary realized that the absence of justice in the contract might arise as a result of the contractual freedom afforded to the contracting parties and, thus, they developed the idea of Commutative Justice in the contract, such as the Piller’s decision, which is considered one of its most important applications. However, the causation theory in the Palestinian Civil Code Draft and the Indonesian Civil Code was limited to monitoring the matter of the existence of the corresponding obligation whatever it was. In this context, this paper seeks to prove that the provisions of the causation theory in the Palestinian Civil Code Draft and the Indonesian Civil Code can be used as a means of monitoring the economic contractual equilibrium of the contract. To do so, the legal provisions of the causation theory should be analysed in a comparative analytical approach with the French judicial decisions to illustrate the Palestinian and Indonesian legislative deficiencies and the need for adopting the French judicial approach.

Keywords


Causation Theory, Piller’s decision, Economic Contractual Equilibrium, Contractual Justice, Palestinian Civil Code Draft, Indonesian Civil Code, Monitoring the Contract.

References


Legal Documents

French Civil Code of 1804.

Indonesian Civil Code, April 1847 (ICC).

Official Explanatory of the Palestinian Civil Code Draft (OEPDCC).

Palestinian Civil Code Draft (PDCC).

Books

Abdaa, Mohammad. Theory of Causality in Civil Law, A Comparative Study. Beirut: Al-Halabi Legal Publications, 2004.

Abdel Rahman, Hamdi. Alwasit in the General Theory of Obligations, the Will Sources of the Obligation, Contract and Unilateral Undertakings. Cairo: Dar Alnahdah Alearabiah, 2010.

Al-Sanhuri, Abd Al-Razzaq. Illustration of Updated Civil Law. Beirut: Al-Halabi Legal Publications, 1998.

Ashmawi, Ibrahim. Causation Theory and Contractual Justice. Cairo: Dar Alnahdah Alearabiah, 2008.

Carbonnier, Jean. Droit Civil, Les Obligations. IV. Paris: Quadrige, 2017.

Flour, Jacques. et al. Droit Civil. Les Obligations: 1. L'acte juridique. Sirey. Paris: Dalloz, 2013.

Ghestin, Jacques. Traité de droit civil, Les obligations, La formation du contrat. Paris: Librairie L.G.D.J, 1993.

Ibrahim, Jalal. Sources of the Obligation. Cairo: Dar Alnahdah Alearabiah, 2011.

Larroumet, Christian. Droit civil: Les Obligations. Le Contrat. Paris: Économica, 1996.

Mansour, Amjad. The General Theory of Obligations, Sources of Commitment, A Study in the Jordanian, Egyptian and French Civil Codes, the AL-Majallah AL- Ahkam AL-Adliyyah and Islamic Jurisprudence with the Judicial Applications of the Cassation Courts. Amman: Dar Al-Thaqafa for Publishing and Distribution, 2009.

Mazeaud, Henri. et al. Leçons de droit civil, tom II, premier volume, les obligations. Paris: Montchrestien Delta, 2000.

Pansier, Frédéric-Jérôme., and Robert Wintgen. Cinquante commentaires d'arrêts en droit des obligations: des classiques aux modernes. Paris: édition Ellipses, 2000.

Porchy-Simon, Stéphanie. Droit civil 2e année, les obligations. Paris: Dalloz, 2017.

Sultan, Anwar. Sources of Commitment in Civil Code, A Comparative with Islamic Jurisprudence. Amman: Dar Al-Thaqafa for Publishing and Distribution, 2011.

Terré, François. et al. Droit civil, Les obligations. Paris: Dalloz, 2013.

Articles

Agustin Luna Serrano, “Towards the Abandonment of the Mention of the Cause in the Defining Conformation of the Contract,” Cuadernos de Derecho Transnacional 2, no. 2 (October 2010): 140-148.

Alex M. Jr. Johnson, “Contracts and the Requirement of Consideration: Posting a Unified Normative Theory of Contracts, Inter Vivos and Testamentary Gift Transfers,” North Dakota Law Review 91, no. 3 (2015): 547-610.

Andenas, Mads, and Kåre Lilleholt. “Remedies and Substantive Law–European Dimensions of Economic and Private Law.” European Business Law Review 23, no. 6 (2012): 861-912.

Basil Markesinis, “Two Hundred Years of a Famous Code: What Should We Be Celebrating,” Texas International Law Journal 39, no. 4 (Summer 2004): 561-580.

Brigitte Lefebvre, “Le Contrat d'Adhesion,” Revue du Notariat 105, no. 2 (September 2003): 439-490.

Carl J. Circo, “The Evolving Role of Relational Contract in Construction Law,” Construction Lawyer 32, no. 4 (Fall 2012): 16-47.

Carlos Pizarro Wilson, “Notas Criticas sobre el Fundamento de la Fuerza Obligatoria del Contrato - Fuentes e Interpretacion del Articulo 1545 del Codigo Civil Chileno,” Revista Chilena de Derecho 31, no. 2 (May-August 2004): 225-238.

Chapin F. Cimino, “Doing Deals with Aristotle - Today,” Seattle University Law Review 41, no. 1 (Fall 2017): 209-248.

Charles Calleros, “Cause, Consideration, Promissory Estoppel, and Promises under Deed: What Our Students Should Know about Enforcement of Promises in a Historical and International Context,” Chicago-Kent Journal of International and Comparative Law 13, no. 2 (Spring 2013): 83-121.

Charles R. Calleros, “U.S. Unconscionability and Article 1171 of the New French Civil Code: Achieving Balance in Statutory Regulation and Judicial Intervention,” Georgia Journal of International and Comparative Law 45, no. 2 (2017): 259-298.

Charlotte Deslauriers-Goulet, “Obligation Essentielle dans le Contrat,” Cahiers de Droit 55, no. 4 (Decembre 2014): 923-950.

Christine Chappuis, “Le Renoncement a la Cause et a la Consideration Dans L’Avant-Projet D'Acte Unifrome OHADA Sur le Droit des Contrats,” Uniform Law Review 13, no. Issues 1 and 2 (2008): 253-292.

David Sandomierski, “Tension and Reconciliation in Canadian Contract Law Casebooks,” Osgoode Hall Law Journal 54, no. 4 (2017): 1181-1244.

Dimitar Stoyanov, “Causa and Consideration - A Comparative Overview,” Lex ET Scientia International Journal 23, no. 1 (2016): 14-33.

Dmitry Poldnikov, “Origins of General Concept of Contract in Western European Legal Science,” Journal on European History of Law 7, no. 2 (2016): 53-59.

Eric Fokou, “La Notion d'Economie du Contrat en Droit Francais et Quebecois,” Revue Generale de Droit 46, no. 2 (2016): 343-378.

Florence G'sell, “Causation, Counterfactuals and Probabilities in Philosophy and Legal Thinking,” Chicago-Kent Law Review 91, no. 2 (2016): 503-526.

Francesco Delfini, “Instances of Civil Law in North American Common Law Tradition: Cause and Consideration in Quebec and Louisiana Civil Codes,” Italian Law Journal 2, no. 1 (2016): 87-104.

Gilles Pillet, “The Reform of French Contract Law and of the General Rules on Obligations: The Civil Code Faces the Challenges of the Market,” International Business Law Journal 2016, no. 3 (2016): 235-254.

Herve Magloire Moneboulou Minkada, “Question de la Definition du Contrat en Droit Prive: Essai d’Une Theorie Institutionnelle, La,” Juridical Tribune 4, no. 1 (June 2014): 88-128.

Hila Keren, “Undermining Justice: The Two Rises of Freedom of Contract and the Fall of Equity,” Canadian Journal of Comparative and Contemporary Law 2, no. 1 (2016): 339-[x].

Italo Birocchi, “Cause and Definition of Contract in XVI Century Law Theory (Materials for a Monograph),” DIREITO GV Law Review 2, no. 1 (January-June 2006): 65-88.

Ivan Siklosi, “Some Thoughts on the Inexistence, Invalidity and Ineffectiveness of Juridical Acts in Roman Law and in Its Subsequent Fate,” Journal on European History of Law 8, no. 1 (2017): 90-97.

James Visick, “The Intellectual Influences on the Code Civil,” UCL Jurisprudence Review 15 (2009): 198-221.

Jean-Michel Marmayou, “Disappearance of the Cause in the Individual Sponsorship Deal,” Romanian Review of Private Law 2011, no. 2 (2011): 253-273.

Jorge Padilla; Natalia Rueda; Malory Zafra Sierra, “Labor Creadora de la Jurisprudencia de la Corte de Oro - Los Ejemplos de la Causa del Contrato, el Error de Derecho y la Responsibilidad por Actividades Peligrosas,” Revista de Derecho Privado 26 (2014): 105-158.

Leon E. Trakman, “Public Responsibilities beyond Consent: Rethinking Contract Theory,” Hofstra Law Review 45, no. 1 (Fall 2016): 217-262.

Liviu Pop, “General Considerations on the Reform of the Right of Obligations in the French Civil Code,” Romanian Review of Private Law 2018, no. 1 (2018): 273-289.

Liviu Pop, “The Main Content of the Reform of Common Law Contracts in the French Civil Code,” Romanian Review of Private Law 2018, no. 2 (2018): 260-322.

Luanda Hawthorne, “Equality and the Law of Contract: The Possible Impact of Aristotle's Theory of Commutative Justice,” Studia Universitatis Babes-Bolyai Jurisprudentia 2015, no. 3 (July-September 2015): 5-22.

Marieve Lacroix, “Relativite Aquilienne en Droit de la Responsabilitie Civile - Analyse Compardee des Systemes Germanique, Canadien et Quebecois, La,” McGill Law Journal 59, no. 2 (2013): 425-476.

Michel Sejean, “The French Reform of Contracts: An Opportunity to Tie Together the Community of Civil Lawyers,” Louisiana Law Review 76, no. 4 (Summer 2016): 1151-1162.

Mignot, Marc. “De la solidarité en général, et du solidarisme contractuel en particulier ou Le solidarisme contractuel a-t-il un rapport avec la solidarité?.” Revue de la Recherche Juridique-Droit prospectif 4 (2004): 2153-2197.

Mihai David, “The Cause of the Obligation and the Legal Formalism - Study of Comparative Law,” Romanian Review of Private Law 2014, no. 2 (2014): 52-90.

Nabil Saleh, “Definition and Formation of Contract under Islamic and Arab Laws,” Arab Law Quarterly 5, no. 2 (May 1990): 101-116.

Nancy S. Kim, “Relative Consent and Contract Law,” Nevada Law Journal 18, no. 1 (Fall 2017): 165-220.

Nikolaos A. Davrados, “Demystifying Enrichment without Cause,” Louisiana Law Review 78, no. 4 (Spring 2018): 1223-1288.

Oana Benta, “Sur le Role de la Cause et de la Morale en Droit,” Studia Universitatis Babes-Bolyai Jurisprudentia 2007, no. 1 (2007): 85-105.

Orit Gan, “The Many Faces of Contractual Consent,” Drake Law Review 65, no. 3 (2017): 615-662.

Robin Kar, “Contract as Empowerment,” University of Chicago Law Review 83, no. 2 (Spring 2016): 759-834.

Ronald J. Jr. Scalise, “Classifying and Clarifying Contracts,” Louisiana Law Review 76, no. 4 (Summer 2016): 1063-1108.

Sabine Tsuruda, “Contract, Power, and the Value of Donative Promises,” South Carolina Law Review 69, no. 2 (Winter 2017): 479-[vi].

Sas Niksic, “The Obligation Cause and Related Institutes in Comparative Law,” Zbornik Pravnog Fakulteta u Zagrebu 56, no. 4 (2006): 1057-1102.

Severine Dusollier, “EU Contractual Protection of Creator: Blind Spots and Shortcomings,” Columbia Journal of Law & the Arts 41, no. 3 (2018): 435-458.

Shahram Aryan; Bagher Mirabbasi, “The Good Faith Principle and Its Consequences in Pre-Contractual Period: A Comparative Study on English and French Law,” Journal of Politics and Law 9, no. 2 (April 2016): 232-245.

Thomas Kadner Graziano, “L’Europeanisation du Droit Prive et de la Methode Comparative - Etude de Cas,” Swiss Review of International and European Law 14, no. 3 (2004): 233-254.

Todd D. Rakoff, “The Five Justices of Contract Law,” Wisconsin Law Review 2016, no. 4 (2016): 733-796.

Warren Swain, “Contract as Promise: The Role of Promising in the Law of Contract - An Historical Account,” Edinburgh Law Review 17, no. 1 (2013): 1-21.

Yann Aubin; Tim Portwood, “Les Clauses Reciproques D’Abandon De Recours et Garanties Contre Les Recours Des Tiers,” International Business Law Journal 2001, no. 6 (2001): 671-698.

Thesis

Or’ara. Assali, The Contractual Balance at the Conclusion of the Contract, PhD Thesis, Department of Law, University of Algeria 1, Algeria, 2015.

Websites

Légifrance, le service public de la diffusion du droit, “French Court of Cassation, civil room 1, public sitting of Wednesday 3 July 1996, no of appeal: 94-14800,” https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichJuriJudi.do?oldAction=rechExpJuriJudi&idTexte=JURITEXT000007036953&fastReqId=934404352&fastPos=18, accessed 16 January 2019.

Légifrance, le service public de la diffusion du droit, “French Court of Cassation, civil room 1, public sitting of Tuesday 7 April 1992, no of appeal: 90-19620,” https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichJuriJudi.do?oldAction=rechExpJuriJudi&idTexte=JURITEXT000007028134&fastReqId=79183410&fastPos=1, accessed 01 January 2019.

Légifrance, le service public de la diffusion du droit, “French Court of Cassation, civil room 3, public sitting of Wednesday 20 October 2010, no of appeal: 09-66113,” https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichJuriJudi.do?oldAction=rechExpJuriJudi&idTexte=JURITEXT000022946030&fastReqId=860674041&fastPos=7, accessed 01 January 2019.

Légifrance, le service public de la diffusion du droit, “French Court of Cassation, civil room 1, public sitting of Wednesday 10 July 2013, no of appeal: 12-17407,” https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichJuriJudi.do?oldAction=rechExpJuriJudi&idTexte=JURITEXT000027704553&fastReqId=377085741&fastPos=5, accessed 01 January 2019.

Légifrance, le service public de la diffusion du droit, “French Court of Cassation, civil room 1, public sitting of Wednesday 6 September 2017, no of appeal: 16-15331,” https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichJuriJudi.do?oldAction=rechExpJuriJudi&idTexte=JURITEXT000035535345&fastReqId=1339938794&fastPos=22, accessed 01 January 2019.

Légifrance, le service public de la diffusion du droit, “French Court of Cassation, commercial room, public sitting of Wednesday 25 October 2017, no of appeal: 16-16839,” https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichJuriJudi.do?oldAction=rechExpJuriJudi&idTexte=JURITEXT000035925323&fastReqId=1339938794&fastPos=21, accessed 01 January 2019.

Légifrance, le service public de la diffusion du droit, “French Court of Cassation, civil room 1, public sitting of Wednesday 2 October 2013, no of appeal: 12-22846 12-22948,” https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichJuriJudi.do?oldAction=rechExpJuriJudi&idTexte=JURITEXT000028038975&fastReqId=1057857571&fastPos=14, accessed 02 January 2019.

Légifrance, le service public de la diffusion du droit, “French Court of Cassation, civil room 1, public sitting of Wednesday 26 September 2012, no of appeal: 11-12945,” https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichJuriJudi.do?oldAction=rechExpJuriJudi&idTexte=JURITEXT000026432007&fastReqId=783224280&fastPos=17, accessed 02 January 2019.

Légifrance, le service public de la diffusion du droit, “French Court of Cassation, civil room 1, public sitting of Wednesday 29 June 2011, no of appeal: 10-12018,” https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichJuriJudi.do?oldAction=rechExpJuriJudi&idTexte=JURITEXT000024295488&fastReqId=2006027488&fastPos=27, accessed 02 January 2019.

Légifrance, le service public de la diffusion du droit, “French Court of Cassation, civil room 1, public sitting of Wednesday 14 May 2014, no of appeal: 13-16102,” https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichJuriJudi.do?oldAction=rechExpJuriJudi&idTexte=JURITEXT000028945068&fastReqId=755549784&fastPos=19, accessed 03 January 2019.

Légifrance, le service public de la diffusion du droit, “French Court of Cassation, civil room 1, public sitting of Thursday 13 November 2014, no of appeal: 13-25550,” https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichJuriJudi.do?oldAction=rechExpJuriJudi&idTexte=JURITEXT000029767557&fastReqId=1790128920&fastPos=17, accessed 03 January 2019.

Légifrance, le service public de la diffusion du droit, “French Court of Cassation, civil room 1, public sitting of Thursday 15 January 2015, no of appeal: 13-13565,” https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichJuriJudi.do?oldAction=rechExpJuriJudi&idTexte=JURITEXT000030114118&fastReqId=722004103&fastPos=16, accessed 03 January 2019.

Légifrance, le service public de la diffusion du droit, “French Court of Cassation, civil room 3, public sitting of Tuesday 8 June 2010, no of appeal: 09-15166,” https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichJuriJudi.do?oldAction=rechExpJuriJudi&idTexte=JURITEXT000022342474&fastReqId=100197999&fastPos=3, accessed 03 January 2019.

Légifrance, le service public de la diffusion du droit, “French Court of Cassation, civil room 3, public sitting of Wednesday 1 March 2000, no of appeal: 98-16836,” https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichJuriJudi.do?oldAction=rechExpJuriJudi&idTexte=JURITEXT000007041680&fastReqId=204395887&fastPos=4, accessed 03 January 2019.

Légifrance, le service public de la diffusion du droit, “French Court of Cassation, civil room 1, public sitting of Thursday 1 December 2011, no of appeal: 09-15779,” https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichJuriJudi.do?oldAction=rechExpJuriJudi&idTexte=JURITEXT000024916439&fastReqId=1287568081&fastPos=23, accessed 03 January 2019.

Légifrance, le service public de la diffusion du droit, “French Court of Cassation, civil room 1, public sitting of Thursday 4 November 2010, no of appeal: 07-21303,” https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichJuriJudi.do?oldAction=rechExpJuriJudi&idTexte=JURITEXT000023012500&fastReqId=1287568081&fastPos=26, accessed 03 January 2019.




ISSN: 2356-2129