Comparative Study on E-Waste Management and the Role of the Basel Convention in Malaysia, Singapore, and Indonesia: A Way Forward

Khalid Mehmood Shad, Sarah Tan Yen Ling, Mohammad Ershadul Karim

Full Text: PDF



DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15742/ilrev.v10n1.596

Abstract


Electrical and electronic equipment waste (E-waste/WEEE) is a current global concern because of the increasing volume and improper treatment of e-waste. Generally, e-waste can be defined as discarded components of electrical and electronic equipment that have no reuse value. The improper disposal of e-waste can bring about catastrophic effects to mankind and the environment. The Basel Convention in 1992 categorizes e-waste as hazardous waste due to the presence of toxic materials. Currently, the production of e-waste is expanding at a considerable rate and is expected to reach 52.2 million tons globally by 2021. Singapore, Malaysia, and Indonesia are three neighboring countries that are facing the issue of e-waste management. The shortage of appropriate recovery and recycling facilities for formal e-waste treatment in the aforementioned three counties may lead to informal e-waste treatment or unsafe landfill, which cause harmful and hazardous effects to human lives and nature. This review provides a comprehensive overview of e-waste management from the perspective of Singapore, Malaysia, and Indonesia. Inadequate governmental policies, lack of e-waste laws, lack of public awareness, and lack of management strategies have caused various social and environmental issues. This work concludes with recommendations for the three countries to restrict the free flow of e-waste by establishing robust e-waste laws and improving the e-waste management system.

Keywords


E-waste management; the Basel Convention; recycle; reuse; recovery; hazardous impact; legal mechanism; public awareness

References


A. Legal Documents

Act No. 32/2009 on Environmental Protection and Management, Indonesia

Annex VIII, The Basel Convention.

Directive 2012/19/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council.

Environmental Protection and Management Act (revised edition) 2002, Singapore

Environmental Protection and Management (Hazardous Substances) Regulations, Singapore

Environmental Quality Act 1974, Malaysia

Environmental Quality (Scheduled Wastes) Regulations 2005, Malaysia

Governmental Regulation Number 101/2014 on Hazardous Waste Management, Indonesia

Hazardous Waste (Control of Export, Import and Transit) Act 1997, Singapore

Hazardous Waste (Control of Export, Import and Transit) Regulations 2015, Singapore

Minister Trade’s Decree No. 31/2016 on the Regulations of the Importation of Non-Hazardous Wastes, Indonesia

Text of the Basel Convention.

B. Reports

Baldé, Cornelis P., Vanessa Forti, Vanessa Gray, Ruediger Kuehr, and Paul Stegmann. The global e-waste monitor 2017: Quantities, flows and resources. United Nations University, International Telecommunication Union, and International Solid Waste Association, 2017.

Final Report Asia Region. “Data Collection Survey on E-waste Management in Malaysia and Surrounding Countries.” Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), EX Research Institute Ltd. 2014.

Forti, Vanessa, Kees Baldé, and Ruediger Kuehr. "E-waste Statistics: Guidelines on Classifications, Reporting and Indicators." (2nd Ed.) United Nations University, ViE – SCYCLE, Bonn, Germany. (2018).

C. Articles

Alam, Md, and Chamhuri Siwar. "Waste recycling in Malaysia: Transition from developing to developed country." Jereme, IA, Alam, MM, and Siwar, C (2015): 1-14.

Andarani, Pertiwi, and Naohiro Goto. "Potential e-waste generated from households in Indonesia using material flow analysis." Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management 16, no. 2 (2014): 306-320.

Andarani, Pertiwi, and Naohiro Goto. "Potential e-waste generated from households in Indonesia using material flow analysis." Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management 16, no. 2 (2014): 306-320.

Aprilia, Aretha, Tetsuo Tezuka, and Gert Spaargaren. "Inorganic and hazardous solid waste management: Current status and challenges for Indonesia." Procedia Environmental Sciences 17 (2013): 640-647.

Chatham-Stephens, Kevin, Jack Caravanos, Bret Ericson, Jennifer Sunga-Amparo, Budi Susilorini, Promila Sharma, Philip J. Landrigan, and Richard Fuller. "Burden of disease from toxic waste sites in India, Indonesia, and the Philippines in 2010." Environmental health perspectives 121, no. 7 (2013): 791-796.

Chi, Xinwen, Martin Streicher-Porte, Mark YL Wang, and Markus A. Reuter. "Informal electronic waste recycling: a sector review with special focus on China." Waste Management 31, no. 4 (2011): 731-742.

Dias, Pablo, Andréa Moura Bernardes, and Nazmul Huda. "Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) management: An analysis on the Australian e-waste recycling scheme." Journal of cleaner production 197 (2018): 750-764.

Duffert, C., M. N. Brune, and K. Prout. "Background document on exposures to e-waste." Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization (2009).

Earth, Perunding Good. "The e-waste inventory project in Malaysia." Department of Environment, Malaysia & EX-Corporation, Japan (2009).

Grant, Kristen, Fiona C. Goldizen, Peter D. Sly, Marie-Noel Brune, Maria Neira, Martin van den Berg, and Rosana E. Norman. "Health consequences of exposure to e-waste: a systematic review." The lancet global health 1, no. 6 (2013): e350-e361.

Ilyas, Sadia, Jae-chun Lee, and Ru-an Chi. "Bioleaching of metals from electronic scrap and its potential for commercial exploitation." Hydrometallurgy 131 (2013): 138-143.

Innovation, Sustainable. "Recycling from E-waste to Resources." (2009).

Kaur, Gundeep. "Corporate governance and corporate illegality the effects of board structure on securities market violations." (2017).

Kojima, Michikazu. "Transboundary movements of recyclable resources in Southeast Asia." International Trade of Recyclable Resources in Asia (2005).

Li, Jinhui, Lili Liu, Nana Zhao, Keli Yu, and Lixia Zheng. "Regional or global WEEE recycling. Where to go?." Waste management 33, no. 4 (2013): 923-934.

Li, Jinhui, Xianlai Zeng, Mengjun Chen, Oladele A. Ogunseitan, and Ab Stevels. "“Control-Alt-Delete”: rebooting solutions for the e-waste problem." Environmental science & technology 49, no. 12 (2015): 7095-7108.

Lu, Shao-you, Yan-xi Li, Tao Zhang, Dan Cai, Ju-jun Ruan, Ming-zhi Huang, Lei Wang, Jian-qing Zhang, and Rong-liang Qiu. "Effect of e-waste recycling on urinary metabolites of organophosphate flame retardants and plasticizers and their association with oxidative stress." Environmental science & technology 51, no. 4 (2017): 2427-2437

Matsuto, T., C. H. Jung, and N. Tanaka. "Material and heavy metal balance in a recycling facility for home electrical appliances." Waste management 24, no. 5 (2004): 425-436.

Murakami, Shinsuke, Atsushi Terazono, Naoya Abe, Yuichi Moriguchi, and Hideki Miyakawa. "Material flows of end-of-life home appliances in Japan." Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management 8, no. 1 (2006): 46-55.

Musson, Stephen E., Yong-Chul Jang, Timothy G. Townsend, and Il-Hyun Chung. "Characterization of lead leachability from cathode ray tubes using the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure." Environmental science & technology 34, no. 20 (2000): 4376-4381.

Nayaka, G. P., K. V. Pai, G. Santhosh, and J. Manjanna. "Recovery of cobalt as cobalt oxalate from spent lithium ion batteries by using glycine as leaching agent." Journal of environmental chemical engineering 4, no. 2 (2016): 2378-2383.

Putra, Hijrah Purnama, Enri Damanhuri, and Emenda Sembiring. "Integration of formal and informal sector (waste bank) in waste management system in Yogyakarta, Indonesia." In MATEC Web of Conferences, vol. 154, p. 02007. EDP Sciences, 2018.

Rauch, Jeremy N., and Paul Romer. "The Singapore Way: Planning for a Sustainable Future." (2015).

Santoso, Sylfannie, T. Yuri M. Zagloel, Romadhani Ardi, and Amalia Suzianti. "Estimating the Amount of Electronic Waste Generated in Indonesia: Population Balance Model." In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, vol. 219, no. 1, p. 012006. IOP Publishing, 2019.

Stewart, Terence P., and Margaret LH Png. "The Growth of Triangle of Singapore, Malaysia and Indonesia." Ga. J. Int'l & Comp. L. 23 (1993): 1.

Suja, Fatihah, Rakmi Abdul Rahman, Arij Yusof, and Mohd Shahbudin Masdar. "E-waste management scenarios in Malaysia." Journal of Waste Management 2014, (2014).

Van den Berg, M. "State of the art on risks of e-waste and children’s health." Discussion paper for WHO Working Meeting on e-waste and children’s health, 2013.

Westra, Harm-Jan, Marjolein J. Peters, Tõnu Esko, Hanieh Yaghootkar, Claudia Schurmann, Johannes Kettunen, Mark W. Christiansen et al. "Systematic identification of trans eQTLs as putative drivers of known disease associations." Nature genetics 45, no. 10 (2013): 1238.

Williams, Eric. "International activities on E-waste and guidelines for future work." In Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Material Cycles and Waste Management in Asia, National Institute of Environmental Sciences: Tsukuba, Japan. 2005.

Wilyani, I. T., J. K. Nugraha, M. A. Aryadi, and Nida Mariam. "E-Waste: An Underrated Hazardous Waste in Indonesia." Journal of Environmental Engineering & Waste Management 3, no. 2 (2018).

Wong, Ming Hung, S. C. Wu, W. Jf Deng, X. Z. Yu, Q. Luo, A. O. W. Leung, C. S. C. Wong, W. J. Luksemburg, and A. S. Wong. "Export of toxic chemicals–a review of the case of uncontrolled electronic-waste recycling." Environmental Pollution 149, no. 2 (2007): 131-140.

Yu, Emily A., Matthew Akormedi, Emmanuel Asampong, Christian G. Meyer, and Julius N. Fobil. "Informal processing of electronic waste at Agbogbloshie, Ghana: workers’ knowledge about associated health hazards and alternative livelihoods." Global health promotion 24, no. 4 (2017): 90-98.

Zoeteman, Bastiaan CJ, Harold R. Krikke, and Jan Venselaar. "Handling WEEE waste flows: on the effectiveness of producer responsibility in a globalizing world." The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology 47, no. 5-8 (2010): 415-436.

D. Books

Lundgren, Karin. The global impact of e-waste: addressing the challenge. International Labour Organization, 2012.

Prasad, N.V. Majeti & Vithanage Meththika, eds., Electronic Waste Management and Treatment Technology. Butterworth-Heinemann, 2019.

Soo, Vi Kie, Charles Featherston, and Matthew Doolan. "E-waste Assessment in Malaysia." In Re-engineering Manufacturing for Sustainability, pp. 389-395. Springer, Singapore, 2013.

Teo, Kian Peng. "Electronics and the environment-Singapore perspective." (2005): 1-189.

E. Websites

Anna Kučírková, “E-Waste: A Big Problem Needing Bigger Solutions” October 29, 2018, .

Basel Convention, Status of Ratification. .

Balqis Lim. “Reducing the impact of e-waste.” New Straits Times. September 27, 2019, .

Boh, Samantha, “Regulations will be introduced to ensure e-waste is recycled: Masagos”. The Straits Times, February 1, 2018. < https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/environment/regulations-will-be-introduced-to-ensure-e-waste-gets-recycled-masagos >.

Dell, “Free Consumer Takeback Services”. < https://www.dell.com/learn/sg/en/sgcorp1/corp-comm/recycling-consumer-apj-sg>.

Demographic Statistics Third Quarter 2019, Malaysia, Department of Statistics Malaysia, Population & Demography. .

DOE. “Collection Points by State.” /www.doe.gov.my/hhew/collection-points/>.

DOE. “E-Waste Alam Alliance.” 2013, .

DOE. “Recovery Facilities.” .

Elyda, Corry. “Jakarta starts e-waste collection service in cooperation with PT.” The Jakarta Post. February 12, 2016, < https://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2016/02/12/jakarta-starts-e-waste-collection-service-cooperation-with-pt.html>.

En, Siau, “Singapore looking at laws for producers to take back e-waste from customers. Today. January 19, 2018. .

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2013) Office of Inspector General, Report: Improved Information Could Better Enable EPA to Manage Electronic Waste and Enforce Regulations. .

Jagran Josh. 2015, “Types of e-waste”. August 27, 2015, .

NEA, “Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) System for E-waste Management System”, NEA, < https://www.nea.gov.sg/our-services/waste-management/3r-programmes-and-resources/e-waste-management/extended-producer-responsibility-(epr)-system-for-e-waste-management-system >.

NEA. “Where to Recycle E-Waste” .

OECD (2001), Extended Producer Responsibility: A Guidance Manual for Governments, Paris.

Paddock, C. Richard. “The Toxic Toll of Indonesia's Battery Recyclers.” National Geographic. May 31, 2016. < https://www.nationalgeographic.com/news/2016/05/indonesia-s-toxic-toll/>.

Renee Cho. “What can we do about the growing e-waste problem?” State the planet. August 27, 2018, .

Sim Leoi. “DOE gets tough on e-waste.” The Star Online. May 30, 2019, .

Singtel and SingPost, “ReCYCLE” .

StarHub, “DHL, StarHub and TES-AMM join forces to champion electronic waste recycling in Singapore.” StarHub, September 16, 2014. .

StEP Initiative. “Solving the E-Waste Problem” White Paper: One Global Definition of E-waste. Bonn, Germany. StEP (2014), 3576.

The technical guidelines on transboundary movements of electrical and electronic waste and used electrical and electronic equipment, in particular regarding the distinction between waste and non-waste under the Basel Convention, .

United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Policy Brief on E-waste, What, Why and How. .

Waste Classification and Control Procedures, Annex VIII & Annex IX of the Basel Convention, .




ISSN: 2356-2129