Cyber-Notary in Contemporary Legal Perspective: A Paradox in Indonesian Laws and Its Marginal Compromises to Find Equilibrium

David Tan



DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15742/ilrev.v10n2.635

Abstract


Notaries in Indonesia have existed since the colonial period until now. Changes in technology and information that continues to evolve brings the flow of change in all aspects of life, including the legal sector. However, the position of notary in Indonesia did not experience many significant changes despite the advancements. Promulgation of Law No. 2 of 2014 also introduced the term cyber-notary formally in the constellation of Indonesian law. But the fact is, the idea of cyber-notary is not practical because of legal obstacles that seem to form a legal paradox. This paper analyses the position of cyber-notaries in Indonesia's positive legal order, challenges, adaptations and compromises that are actually carried out to implement cyber-notary in Indonesia. Normative-juridical legal research method was chosen as a research method by examining various legal theories and comparisons between related laws. Also being presented are examples of successful cyber-notary implementations from several countries. From the results of the study, it was found that the implementation of cyber-notary in Indonesia is still far from expectations. This condition occurs because interrelated law still creates legal paradoxes, resulting in the inability of notaries in Indonesia to fully develop into cyber-notaries. Recommendations are also given to stakeholders as valuable insight.

Keywords


cyber-notary; legal paradox; Indonesia

References


Legal Documents

Indonesia. Undang-Undang Dasar Negara Republik Indonesia Tahun 1945 (The 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia).

Indonesia. Kitab Undang-Undang Hukum Perdata Indonesia (Indonesian Code of Civil Law).

Indonesia. Undang-Undang tentang Jabatan Notaris (Law regarding Notary Position). UU No. 30 Tahun 2004, LN No. 117 Tahun 2004 (Law Number 30 Year 2004, SG No. 117 Year 2004).

Indonesia. Undang-Undang tentang Informasi dan Transaksi Elektronik (Law regarding Information and Electronic Transaction). UU No. 11 Tahun 2008, LN No. 58 Tahun 2008 (Law Number 11 Year 2008, SG No. 58 Year 2008).

Indonesia. Undang-Undang tentang Perubahan atas Undang-Undang Jabatan Notaris (Law regarding Amendment of Law regarding Notary Position). UU No. 2 Tahun 2014, LN No. 3 Tahun 2014 (Law Number 2 Year 2014, SG No. 3 Year 2014).

Indonesia. Undang-Undang tentang Perubahan atas Undang-Undang Informasi dan Transaksi Elektronik (Law regarding Amendment of Law regarding Information and Electronic Transaction). UU No. 19 Tahun 2016, LN No. 251 Tahun 2016 (Law Number 19 Year 2016, SG No. 19 Year 2016).

Books

Andasasmita, Komar. Notaris I: Peraturan Jabatan, Kode Etik dan Asosiasi Notaris/Notariat. Bandung: Ikatan Notaris Indonesia, 1991.

Bachrudin. Hukum Kenotariatan: Teknik Pembuatan Akta dan Bahasa Akta. Bandung: PT Refika Aditama, 2019.

Budiono, Herlien. Kumpulan Tulisan Hukum Perdata di Bidang Kenotariatan: Buku Kedua. Bandung: PT Citra Aditya Bakti, 2013.

_. Kumpulan Tulisan Hukum Perdata di Bidang Kenotariatan: Buku Kesatu. Bandung: PT Citra Aditya Bakti, 2016.

_. Demikian Akta Ini: Tanya Jawab Mengenai Pembuatan Akta Notaris di Dalam Praktik. Bandung: PT Citra Aditya Bakti, 2018.

Harris, Freddy, and Leny Helena. Notaris Indonesia. Jakarta: PT Lintas Cetak Djaja, 2017.

Kie, Tan Thong. Studi Notariat & Serba-serbi Praktek Notaris. Jakarta: PT Ichtiar Baru Van Hoeve, 2013.

Nurita, Emma. Cyber Notary Pemahaman Awal dalam Konsep Pemikiran. Bandung: Refika Aditama, 2012.

Pandoman, Agus. Teori & Praktek Akta Perikatan Publisitas & Non Publisitas. Jakarta: PT Raga Utama Kreasi, 2017.

Articles

Anderson, John C.. “Document Authentication in Electronic Commerce: The Misleading Notary Public Analog for the Digital Signature Certification Authority.” The John Marshall Journal of Information Technology & Privacy Law Vol. 17 Issue 3. (Spring 1999): 833-872. Accessed 20 December 2019. url: http://repository.jmls.edu/jitpl/vol17/iss3/5.

Bahri, Syamsul, Annalisa Yahanan and Agus Trisaka. “Kewenangan Notaris dalam Mensertifikasi Transaksi Elektronik dalam Rangka Cyber Notary.” Jurnal Repertorium Vol. 8 Issue 2. (November 2019): 142-157. Accessed 20 December 2019. doi: 10.28946/rpt.v%vi%i.356.

Bimaroni, Restu Abiranda and Munsharif Abdul Chalim. “Legal Review on Prospects for Filling in the Form of Notary Protocol in Electronic Form and Legal Power.” Jurnal Akta Vol. 6 Issue 1. (March 2019): 67-72. Accessed 23 December 2019. url: http://jurnal.unissula.ac.id/index.php/akta/article/download/4245/2986.

Gassen, Dominik. “A System of Trust: German Civil Law Notaries and Their Role in Providing Trustworthy Electronic Documents and Communications.” Digital Evidence and Electronic Signature Law Review 3. (2006): 69-72. Accessed 23 December 2019. url: https://sas-space.sas.ac.uk/5557/.

_. “Introducing and Working with Electronic Signatures in Mass Applications: Notaries and the German Commercial Register.” Digital Evidence and Electronic Signature Law Review 5. (2008): 68-72. Accessed 23 December 2019. url: https://sas-space.sas.ac.uk/5457/.

Krisna, Swante Adi and Hari Purwadi. “Utilization of Public Key Infrastructure to Facilitate the Role of Certification Authority in Cyber Notary Context in Indonesia.” International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding Vol. 5 Issue 2. (April 2018): 345-355. Accessed 23 December 2019. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.18415/ijmmu.v5i2.392.

Krisyanto, Tegas Hari, Zainul Daulay, and Benny Beatrix. “Strength of Evidence of Notarial Deed in the Perspective of Cyber Notary in Indonesia.” International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding Vol. 6 Issue 3. (June 2019): 775-784. Accessed 23 December 2019. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.18415/ijmmu.v6i3.906.

Lightowler, Michael. “E-commerce for Notaries in England & Wales.” Digital Evidence and Electronic Signature Law Review 4. (2007): 41-44. Accessed 23 December 2019. url: https://sas-space.sas.ac.uk/5462/.

Maharani, Tanty, Lalu Parman, and Lalu Muhammad Hayanul Haq. “Cyber Notary System in the Order of Norms in Indonesia and Australia (Comparative Study in Notary Service Improvement Strategies).” International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding Vol. 5 Issue 05. (2019): 32-40. Accessed 23 December 2019. doi: https://doi.org/10.18535/ijsrm/v7i5.lla03.

Makarim, Edmon. “Modernisasi Hukum Notaris Masa Depan: Kajian Hukum terhadap Kemungkinan Cybernotary di Indonesia.” Jurnal Hukum & Pembangunan Vol. 41 Issue 3. (July-September 2011): 466-499. Accessed 23 December 2019. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.21143/jhp.vol41.no3.287.

Nadia, Widya Sujud. “Kekuatan Hukum Cyber Notary Menurut Sistem Hukum di Indonesia.” Jurnal Civil Law Vol. 1 Issue 4. (2019): 1-24. Accessed 23 December 2019. url: https://jurnal.usu.ac.id/index.php/civil_law/article/view/23850.

Nola, Luthvi Febryka. “Peluang Penerapan Cyber Notary dalam Peraturan Perundang-undangan di Indonesia.” Jurnal Negara Hukum Vol. 2 Issue 1. (June 2011): 75-101. Accessed 23 December 2019. doi: https://doi.org/10.22212/jnh.v2i1.187.

Putri, Cyndiarnis Cahyaning and Abdul Rachmad Budiono. “Konseptualisasi dan Peluang Cyber Notary dalam Hukum.” Jurnal Ilmiah Pendidikan Pancasila dan Kewarganegaraan Vol. 4 Issue 1. (2019): 29-36. Accessed 23 December 2019. url: http://journal2.um.ac.id/index.php/jppk/article/view/10482.

Reynis, Bernard and Ugo Bechini. “European Civil Law Notaries Ready to Launch International Digital Deeds.” Digital Evidence and Electronic Signature Law Review 4. (2007): 14-18. Accessed 23 December 2019. url: https://sas-space.sas.ac.uk/5581/.

Rositawati, Desy, I Made Arya Utama, and Desak Puti Dewi Kasih. “Penyimpanan Protokol Notaris secara Elektronik dalam Kaitan Cyber Notary.” Jurnal Akta Comitas Vol. 2 Issue 2. (August 2017): 172-182. Accessed 23 December 2019. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.24843/AC.2017.v02.i02.p01.

Rossalina, Zainatun. “Keabsahan Akta Notaris yang Menggunakan Cyber Notary sebagai Akta Otentik.” Jurnal Hukum 2016. (2016): 1-25. Accessed 20 December 2019. url: http://hukum.studentjournal.ub.ac.id/index.php/hukum/article/view/1554.

Sasongko, Tomy Indra. “Kewenangan Notaris dalam Pembuatan Akta Risalah Lelang Pasca Berlakunya Peraturan Menteri Keuangan Nomor 90/PMK.06/2016 tentang Pedoman Pelaksanaan Lelang dengan Penawaran Secara Tertulis Tanpa Kehadiran Peserta Lelang Melalui Internet.” Lex Renaissance Vol. 3 Issue 1. (2018): 206-225. Accessed 22 January 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.20885/JLR.vol3.iss1.art9.

Schwank, Friedrich. “CyberDOC and E-government: The Electronic Archive of Austrian Notaries.” Digital Evidence and Electronic Signature Law Review 1. (2004): 30-32. Accessed 23 December 2019. url: https://sas-space.sas.ac.uk/5332/.

Syamsir, Syamsir, Elita Rahmi, and Yetniwati. “Prospek Cyber Notary sebagai Media Penyimpanan Pendukung Menuju Profesionalisme Notaris.” Recital Review Vol. 1 Issue 2. (2019): 132-147. Accessed 23 December 2019. url: https://online-journal.unja.ac.id/RR/article/view/7458.

Wibisana, Andri Gunawan. “Menulis di Jurnal Hukum: Gagasan, Struktur, dan Gaya.” Jurnal Hukum & Pembangunan Vol. 49 Issue 2. (2019): 473-496. Accessed 22 December 2019. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.21143/jhp.vol49.no2.2014.

Sari, Dewa Ayu Widya, R. A. Retno Murni, and I Made Udiana. “Kewenangan Notaris di Bidang Cyber Notary Berdasarkan Pasal 15 ayat (3) Undang-Undang Nomor 2 Tahun 2014 tentang Perubahan atas Undang-Undang Nomor 30 Tahun 2004 tentang Jabatan Notaris.” Jurnal Acta Comitas Vol. 2 Issue 2. (2017): 219-227. Accessed 23 December 2019. doi: https://doi.org/10.24843/AC.2017.v02.i02.p06.

Wijanarko, Fahma Rahman, Mulyoto, and Supanto. “Tinjauan Yuridis Akta Notaris terhadap Pemberlakuan Cyber Notary di Indonesia menurut Undang-Undang Nomor 2 Tahun 2014.” Jurnal Repertorium Vol. II Issue 2. (December 2015): 7-19. Accessed 23 December 2019. url: https://www.neliti.com/id/publications/213169/tinjauan-yuridis-akta-notaris-terhadap-pemberlakuan-cyber-notary-di-indonesia-me.

Website

Desoutter Industrial Tools. “Industrial Revolution-From Industry 1.0 to Industry 4.0.” https://www.desouttertools.com/industry-4-0/news/503/industrial-revolution-from-industry-1-0-to-industry-4-0. Accessed 20 December 2019.




ISSN: 2356-2129