BETWEEN CONTROL AND EMPOWERMENT: LOCAL GOVERNMENT ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF ADAT COMMUNITIES AND ADAT VILLAGES IN INDONESIA

Tine Suartina



DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15742/ilrev.v10n3.679

Abstract


The local government’s acknowledgment of adat (customary) communities and adat villages, as regulated in the Village Law 6/2014 , appear to signal an increasing recognition of adat law. However, the current acknowledgment practices and adat village formalizations have become areas of legal contestation between adat communities and state-national and local governments. Despite the resurgence of formal legal pluralism, those acknowledgment and accommodation mechanisms are double-edged. They involve control and empowerment as emphasized in Hellman’s framework applied to analyze the dilemma in a plural society regarding cultural politics. On the one hand, the acknowledgment and accommodation mechanisms conducted through an official process necessitate the fulfillment of a list of requirements set by the government (controlled). Thus, there is a possible drawback for an asymmetrical position between the formal institution (recognition giver) and the community (recognition recipient). Conversely, the mechanisms are used by adat communities as a means to gain the rights of self-determination. Thus, empowerment is realized, because most local acknowledgment regulations include obligations of protection by the state and local governments. This paper discusses the dynamics of legal pluralism in Indonesia using cases of local acknowledgment and adat village institutionalization in which adat law becomes an element in formalizing the communities’ existence and adat village format. However, a question remains regarding whether the central position of adat law in such a mechanism is merely applied to fulfill the acknowledgment and accommodation requirement or whether it actually strengthens its capacity.

Abstrak
Pengakuan Pemerintah Daerah atas masyarakat adat dan desa adat, sebagaimana diatur melalui Undang-undang Desa Nomor 6/2014, seperti menandakan semakin meningkatnya pengakuan terhadap hukum adat. Namun, praktik pengakuan pemerintah dan formalisasi desa adat saat ini merupakan arena kontestasi dalam bidang hukum antara pemerintah negara bagian dan nasional, dan masyarakat adat. Terlepas dari menguatnya pluralisme hukum secara formal, pengakuan dan mekanisme akomodasi tersebut memiliki dua sisi, kontrol dan pemberdayaan sebagaimana ditekankan oleh Hellman untuk menganalisis dilema dalam masyarakat plural dalam politik kebudayaan. Di satu sisi, mekanisme pengakuan dan akomodasi yang dilakukan melalui proses resmi mensyaratkan pemenuhan sejumlah persyaratan yang ditetapkan oleh pemerintah (kontrol); karena itu, memiliki potensi terjadinya posisi asimetris antara lembaga formal (pemberi pengakuan) dan masyarakat (penerima pengakuan). Sebaliknya, mekanisme-mekanisme tersebut juga digunakan oleh masyarakat adat sebagai alat untuk memperoleh hak penentuan nasib sendiri. Untuk itu, aspek pemberdayaan disertakan dalam sebagian besar peraturan pengakuan di daerah termasuk kewajiban perlindungan oleh negara dan pemerintah daerah. Tulisan ini mendiskusikan dinamika pluralisme hukum di Indonesia melalui kasus-kasus pengakuan daerah dan pelembagaan desa adat, di mana hukum adat menjadi elemen dalam formalisasi keberadaan masyarakat dan format desa adat. Pertanyaannya adalah apakah posisi sentral hukum adat dalam mekanisme tersebut sesuai dengan penguatan kapasitasnya, atau apakah hanya diterapkan untuk memenuhi persyaratan pengakuan dan akomodasi.

Keywords


adat communities; local acknowledgment; adat village; control; empowerment

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ISSN: 2356-2129